What is the WRAP decision framework (Decision series – 2 of 7)

Now that we have reviewed the Cynefin framework to help us think about what kind of decision we are making to help set proper expectations as to the risks and the steps, please find below a summary of each step in the WRAP decision framework taken from Decisive authored by Dan and Chip Heath to help us with the process of making the decision.



Mission: To break out of a narrow frame and expand the set of options you consider

Core Ideas: The most important tools to keep in mind

  • Expand your options.
  • Consider the opportunity cost.
  • Run the “vanishing options test.”
  • Multitrack – think AND not OR.
  • Toggle between the promotion and prevention mindsets.
  • Find someone who has solved your problem.
  • Try “laddering.”

widen your options


The mission: To fight the confirmation bias and ensure that, when you are assessing your options, you are gathering information that you can trust.

Core Ideas: The most important tools to keep in mind

  • Fight the confirmation bias.
  • Spark constructive disagreement.
  • Ask disconfirming questions.
  • Consider the opposite.
  • Make a deliberate mistake.
  • Zoom out: Respect the base rates.
  • Zoom in: Take a close-up.
  • Ooch: a combination of “scoot” and “inch”. Apparently, it’s a thing.


The mission: To resist the disrupting influence of short-term emotion and ensure that you make a decision based on your core priorities

Core Ideas: The most important tools to keep in mind

  • If you’re agonizing, gather more options or information.
  • Try 10/10/10.
  • Fight the “status quo bias” (mere exposure + loss aversion).
  • Shift perspectives to gain distance.
  • Identify and enshrine your core priorities.
  • Go on the offensive against lesser priorities.


The mission: To avoid being overconfident about the way our decisions will unfold and, instead, taking the opportunity to plan for both good and bad potential scenarios.

Core Ideas: The most important tools to keep in mind

  • Bookend the future.
  • Run a premortem and preparade.
  • Use a safety factor.
  • Create a “realistic job preview.”
  • Set a tripwire.
  • Use “pattern-matching” tripwires.

Next week, I will start with the first of four posts to go into more depth into some of the tools mentioned, provide some examples and suggestions on how to use each part of the WRAP decision framework.  I will start with Widen Your Options.

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Published by Bill Flynn

Gazelles Member Advisor and early stage startup specialist with a proven track record with 16 Boston-based startups (9 to date with 5 successful outcomes, advisor to 7 others); SMB to Fortune 500 companies. 20+ years of Senior Sales, Marketing and GM experience in industries including mobile advertising, security, digital advertising, e-commerce and IT. Core Competencies: Player/Coach, Metrics-driven, Execution-based philosophy, Life-long learner

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